Mondo Macchina Nr. 1 - Anno 2022

n. 1/2022 55 TECHNOLOGY Log splitters for firewood production This equipment is of particular interest in the agricultural field, especially for the models of medium productivity, which can be operated independently through electric or internal combustion engines, or through the tractor's PTO. The most complete versions are equipped with various devices that can make work less tiring and, most of all, more safe Gli spaccalegna possono essere di tipo verticale (sopra), orizzontale (al centro), oppure lavorare in entrambe le direzioni (sotto), se opportunamente attrezzati Log splitters can be vertical (top), horizontal (middle), or work in both directions (bottom) if adequately equipped tivity log splitters are suitable, driven by different sources of power (including tractors), which can be equipped with many accessories to make the work less tiring and above all safer. Different typologies The operating principle is quite simple and consists of a progressive sawing of the log of wood through the penetration of a strong wedge of varying inclination along the direction of its fibers. This is due to the thrust usually exerted by a hydraulic cylinder against an antagonistic element, i.e., the supporting plate of the log. Medium-productivity models can be vertical or horizontal and can work with two different logics of movement of the mobile element. The latter can be either the wedge that penetrates (the prevalent solution in vertical models) or the plate that pushes the log towards the splitting device (the preferred method in horizontal models). Also available are properly equipped models that can work both horizontally and vertically. Power sources The pump that pressurizes (even up to 350 bar) the oil necessary to operate the hydraulic cylinder can be operated differently. By means of an electric motor (alternating current, either 220 or 380 V, depending on the power required), an endothermic engine (often petrol), or even through the tractor's PTO, directly splined to its terminal tang or connected by a cardan shaft. And combined with the tractor, the supporting structure of the log splitter can be equipped with a triangular frame for coupling to the rear 3-point hitch. If powered by an autonomous engine, the log splitter is equipped with suitable devices to ensure stable support on the ground.Wheeled versions are also available, sometimes even approved for use on public roads. Power demand clearly varies according to the performance characteristics of the log splitter, particularly the amount of thrust, but also in relation to the diameter of the log to be split. For medium-sized models, indicatively, the power ranges from 2-3 Hp for 6-8 t of thrust and logs Ø max 40 cm for coupling with the electric motor, up to about 20 Hp for 30 t of force and sections Ø max 100 cm for operation through the tractor's PTO. Wood splitter organs The log is split by progressive insertion of the splitter in the sense tipo industriale. L’ambito agricolo ben si presta a tale produzione: allo scopo sono adatti spaccalegna di media produttività, azionati con diverse sorgenti di potenza (trattore compreso), che possono essere dotati di numerosi accessori per rendere il lavoro meno faticoso e soprattutto più sicuro. Le tipologie Il principio di funzionamento è piuttosto semplice, e consiste in una progressiva depezzatura del ciocco di legno tramite la penetrazione nel senso delle sue fibre di un robusto cuneo di varia inclinazione, grazie alla spinta esercitata solitamente da un cilindro idraulico, rispetto ad un elemento antagonista, ovvero la piastra di appoggio del ciocco. I modelli di media produttività possono essere di tipo verticale oppure orizzontale, e lavorare con due differenti logiche di movimento dell’elemento mobile, che può essere in alternativa o il cuneo che penetra (soluzione prevalente nei modelli verticali), oppure la piastra che spinge il ciocco verso l’organo di spacco (modalità preferita nei modelli orizzontali). Sono disponibili anche modelli che, opportunamente attrezzati, possono lavorare sia in orizzontale che verticale.