Information on the mechanization of agriculture, gardening, components and multifunctionality.

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Technology

The front loader evolution

The front loader is probably the most important tractor accessory, significantly improving its multifunctionality. Technical progress has focused in particular on the automation of certain functions and safety in the management of suspended loads, among which the self-levelling of the lifting and lowering routines seems to be particularly useful
Technology

Weeding: all the benefits, all the applications

Weeding was often neglected in the past, but it is a simple yet highly effective mechanical weeding method. It has many agronomic and environmental advantages recently brought back into fashion for both open field and greenhouse cultivation, mainly if conducted organically
Technology

Production Mapping Systems

Production maps, developed with data collected during the harvest of products, are among the basics of precision agriculture. They provide a valuable opportunity to fully detect field variability in order to achieve optimal management of production factors, adopting the so-called "variable rate" distribution
Technology

Lubricating oils and filters for the engine

Lubrication is a fundamental requirement for the proper functioning of the engine of any self-propelled agricultural machinery. In fact, excessive friction would inevitably lead to a significant reduction in the power generated with a harmful overheating and a simultaneous increase in the wear of moving parts
Technology

Miscanthus for local pellet production

Miscanthus is a biofuel that can be efficiently grown in marginal soils with a non-intensive cultivation technique. Partly due to the reduced collection humidity, the biomass obtained is particularly suitable for pellet production
Technology

Automatic systems for cattle feeding

Automated cattle feeding systems are playing an increasingly important role in the livestock sector. They combine an increase in dry matter ingestion by the animals with significant labor and energy savings
Technology

Soil sterilization techniques

Several machines have been developed, based on chemical or physical solutions, which can eliminate pathogens, parasites, and even viruses and bacteria in agricultural soil, particularly in protected crops. Promising new alternatives are also being studied, including the use of UV light, or ozone
Technology

PocketNNI, an app for reducing the environmental impact of arable farming

Optimizing the use of inputs is suitable for both the wallet and the environment. Besides improving the economic performance of crops, precision agriculture is increasingly proving to be an effective way to mitigate the environmental impact of agricultural production, in this case, rice farming
Technology

PTO shaft guards: there is still work to be done

Hits, cuts, scrapes, mishandling. Heat, cold, ice, acids, solar radiation. All of these elements contribute in the (quick) degradation of the PTO shaft guard components. For this reason, the manufacturers' efforts to improve the product as well as the users' diligence in its maintenance must remain at the highest level
Technology

High efficiency and sophisticated automation for drip irrigation

Micro-irrigation systems have become rapidly popular, thanks mainly to their high efficiency and the simultaneous possibility of liquid fertilization. They also ensure tangible environmental benefits, thanks to the reduced volumes of water delivered. The technical solutions proposed on the market are still relatively expensive, but they can effectively prevent crop water stress to benefit the yield
Technology

The technical progress of pruning shears

Manual, hydraulic, pneumatic and recently also electronic battery. The professional models of pruning shears used in orchards and vineyards are more and more often equipped with performing lithium-ion batteries. Thanks to dedicated control electronics, they optimize the current consumption to reach the ideal autonomy, of an entire working day
Technology

Saffron, towards mechanized harvesting

Saffron, with a price which can reach 35 euro per gram, is one of the most expensive spices on the market. Hence, over the years, its cultivation has attracted an increasing number of operators. And the research for its progressive mechanization is growing up
Technology

From the field to the table, harvest of the pumpkin seeds

Still little known in Italy for consumption as such, in other countries pumpkin seed are widely used for salads or added to sweets and/or bakery products. They are offered both natural or roasted and salted in a shell or shelled, and they are excellent ingredients of a modern diet because of their high content of amino acids and unsaturated fats
Technology

High automation for bale wagons

Whether equipped with devices to catch and load or used only for transport, bale-loading wagons have become very popular especially among contractors as a valuable aid to minimize the time required to deliver loads of forage and straw to their customers
Technology

Sustainable rice cultivation: a protocol of submergence

Preliminary results of an experiment carried out in Lomellina indicate that an increase in dry periods leads to a reduction in methane emissions and decreased arsenic uptake by the rice grain
TAGRice
Technology

From the soil to the table, harvesting peanuts

Peanuts are geocarpic leguminous plants, widely cultivated and particularly appreciated for appetizers, especially during festivities. The vast surface dedicated to this crop in some countries implies the importance of proper harvesting mechanization usually carried out in two stages. The first stage is the extirpation of the plant (followed by a short withering), then the separation of the pods carrying the seeds from the rest of the vegetable mass
Technology

Combined stone crushers and cutters for excellent results in forestry

Designed explicitly for ordinary and extraordinary maintenance in woodland and forestry environments, stone crushers and combined forestry cutters not only finely chop the soil but also crush stones and shred branches, stumps, and roots
Technology

Pruning machinery for vineyards and orchards

Whether you choose to mechanize pruning fully or carry out pre-pruning, many types of machinery are available on the market. Nevertheless, each of them shows advantages and disadvantages. Hence it is necessary to carefully evaluate in advance the agronomic purposes of cultivation according to the type of farming
Technology

Urban areas: technologies for cleaning and waste collection

The means used for urban cleaning have evolved a great deal, both in terms of the machines used to clean the streets, pavements, squares and yards, and in the systems for sorting urban waste
Technology

Fumigation, sustainable technologies for soil pest control

The research in the sector is evolving towards the development of machines for the distribution of products characterized by the widest sustainability. Solarization, biofumigation and steam use are the solutions most frequently adopted
Technology

From the field to the table, harvesting bulbs, tubers, and roots

Roots, bulbs and tubers need sowing (or transplanting) beds without skeleton, well refined, ventilated, and drained. In order to harvest the product preserving its quality, it is necessary to have dedicated machines, which differ for the harvesting bar, which can be adjusted to the specific needs of different species
Technology

Pruning in the vineyard: the suckering machine

Suckering consists of the elimination of unfruitful shoots. Although there is a chemical pruning technique, the most common technique adopted in vineyards is the one that includes the use of mechanical suckering machines, crucial tools for improving and speeding up operations
Technology

The evolution of chopper-mixer wagons

Since the 1960s, the spread of the unifeed ration in livestock farming has undoubtedly been favored by the availability of mixer (chopper) wagons. Ever since, this solution for feeding the herd has become an absolute reference, also due to wide range of models, combined with the possibility of providing increasingly "precise" rations
Technology

To enhance the soil structure: stone buriers

Stone buriers are similar to hoes but have some crucial features distinguishing them from hoes. They work the soil finely, stratifying stones and pebbles in-depth, which are the skeleton's grossest components. Combined with calibrated grids, levelling blades and compacting rollers, they are able to prepare a perfect seedbed
Technology

The harvesting of small fruits is more and more mechanized

The red fruit market is in significant expansion, offering a wide variety of products with different organoleptic features. To make the collection more efficient, mechanical tools have been studied to facilitate and accelerate the harvesting. For American blueberries, industrial currants, and cranberries, differentiated mechanical means are available, while for strawberries, robotic systems are already on the market
Technology

Snow emergency: vehicles for road safety

Snowplows, snowblowers, salt spreaders and sprayers are crucial to restoring the road system in case of snowfall. A wide range of machinery and implements, partly manufactured by the agricultural and gardening machinery industries, can meet the most wide-ranging needs, and help make roadways and urban areas safe
Technology

Tractors designed for mountain farming

Tractors for mountain farms must be exceptionally reliable, efficient, and safe. There is high-tech machinery specifically designed to carry out modern and profitable agriculture in mountain areas on the market
Technology

Minimum tillage machinery

The agricultural machinery industry provides effective solutions for carrying out minimum tillage operations. This cultivation technique reduces stress on the soil and keeps the organic substance, with advantages over time in terms of economy and sustainable tillage
Technology

Hammer mills

These machines can grind any material with an adjustable degree of fineness. In the agricultural field, they are commonly used for preparing grains, especially cereals, as a primary component in animal feed
Technology

Log splitter, core machinery of the bioenergy chain

With their many different versions, log splitters are crucial machinery for handling biomass aimed at direct combustion. The market size explains the presence of several brands and models in Italy. When choosing the model, it is necessary to evaluate the volume of material to be treated, how the machine is operated, the maximum diameter of the wood to be cut and the thrust force, and the resistance of the wood species to be processed
Technology

The operator's protection in phytosanitary treatments with the "category 4" cabin

The "category 4" approved cabins are an excellent alternative to individual protection devices for phytosanitary treatments, as they ensure adequate protection from pollutants, saving the operator from wearing heavy and bulky
Technology

Diesel Fuel Filters and Operating Oils

Of the many filters used on the tractor, those of diesel fuel and operating oils certainly play an essential role in ensuring proper operation and little wear over time of the mechanical parts involved
Technology

The Lighting System Evolution

Modern lighting elements installed on tractors and self-propelled implements make agricultural work easy and safe even in darkness
Technology

Agricultural engine air filters

These components are essential to the best functioning of the diesel engine. To achieve optimum combustion, about 20 parts of air per one of diesel are generally required in modern agricultural engines. Therefore, the air filter must be thoroughly and adequately serviced
Technology

Different mechanized sites for harvesting biomass for pruning in Southern Italy

A mulcher produced by Peruzzo di Curtarolo (PD) was used to collect pruning residues from various tree crops. By measuring the multiple harvesting parameters and comparing the different productions, it has been possible to establish the most efficient mechanized supply chains. The citrus fruit harvesting site showed the best production capacity, followed by the pear and apple tree sites
Technology

High-performance mechanization for valuing pruning residues

The agricultural waste handling, which has always been a burden for farms from an organizational and economic perspective, can now constitute a valuable resource if the residual material is used as an energy source. Mechanization makes it possible to use this resource conveniently. Still, technologies must be chosen according to the specific needs of each company. The choice of the most suitable site is, therefore, crucial
Technology

The Agricultural Trailers Evolution

Growing needs for transporting products have led to a significant modernization of trailers, particularly in terms of safety and driving comfort. Braking, steering, and suspension technology have made significant technological progress
Technology

Pile-drivers, an essential support

The planting of the vineyard, and more generally, of those crops that require permanent support, cannot be implemented without a precise and rigorous placement of the posts. Modern pile-drivers ensure excellent performance thanks to high-tech solutions
Technology

Mechanized feeding lane management

In zootechnics, in addition to precision feeding, robotic solutions are available to optimize ration control in the feeding aisle. These systems have the advantage of reducing working time and labor costs
Technology

Sustainable viticulture is digital

The viticulture sector, especially with its top-tier productions, has always demonstrated that it is at the forefront of the adoption of new technologies and advanced systems. The skills required today include those related to the use of digital systems, which require specific skills and define new professional roles
Technology

Innovative equipment for olive growing

Olive growing plays a very important role in Italy, both for the quantities produced and for the quality of production. The search for solutions that optimize the processes has led to the creation of super-intensive systems. Instead of the traditional single plants, these have production walls, where the cultivation operations are fully mechanized
Technology

Mulching with plastic film for enhanced crop management

Widely adopted for some time now, mulching is an excellent solution to reduce production inputs, also managing to increase yield. The mechanical industry produces seed drills that can be equipped to spread the mulching film simultaneously. In addition to the fruit and vegetable sector, more recently, mulching has also become widespread in the seeding of grasses, mainly maize, especially with transparent biodegradable cellulose film, perforated where the seeds are to ensure the best possible emergence of the seedling
Technology

Elevating work platforms: the best solution for farm work at height

Especially when connected to the tractor's three-point hitch, AWPs are a valuable aid for agricultural work, such as pruning tall trees, which require the ongoing presence of one or two operators at significant heights from the ground. Today, the market offers a wide variety of platforms, which meet the needs of different crops and types of farms. The use of innovative materials, electronic control systems, and advanced design techniques have made this type of equipment increasingly safe
Technology

Industrial tomatoes mechanized harvesting

The tomato production plays a significant role in Italy both because of the strong territorial vocation and because of the availability of sophisticated machinery for its harvesting. The sector provides a wide variety of solutions, with different types of heads, and the implementation of electronic systems enables increasingly better crop selections
Technology

Operator protection in phytosanitary treatments

Crop protection uses products that are harmful, in many forms, to the human organism. It is, therefore, necessary to adopt and scrupulously apply the Personal Protective Equipment designed for this purpose
Technology

Rubber tracks for large agricultural machinery

Rubber tracks had a time success record on the market thanks to their several advantages; they can equip both small tractors and large self-propelled agricultural machinery. In the latter case, they are technically quite complex devices
Technology

Agricultural machinery: the age of robots

Electronic systems are now growing exponentially, and the formidable spread of digital products offers particularly beneficial economies of scale. This has very important effects on agriculture "4.0" and on the application of robotics and artificial intelligence in the agricultural machinery sector. What are the limits within which machines can learn and operate, and how can they test their behaviours, in particular when they have to do with human interaction: this is the issue that the sector's industries are already taking on
Technology

No-till seeding: benefits for the environment and farm economy

No-till seeding, although still little practiced in Italy, represents a promising solution to contain diesel consumption and increase the sustainability of production. The greatest benefits are obtained in the medium to long term due to the increase in organic matter and soil fertility, and the reduction of erosion
Technology

Brush cutter, a multipurpose equipment

By taking advantage of the hydraulic power transmission, brush cutters can work with a considerable outreach compared to the tractors with which they are coupled. It is important to carefully take care of the maintenance of the cutting rotor and follow the procedures that guarantee safety during the execution of the work
Technology

Ballasting, to increase grip and stability

It is a widespread practice in agriculture which, if applied correctly, allows the optimization of many processes. Ballasting, which involves the use of several materials, can also be performed on the wheel rims. In recent years, innovative technical solutions made by manufacturers have attracted attention, also winning awards in competitions rewarding technical innovations
Technology

From the field to the sugar factory: the beet harvest

Harvesting is the most complex phase of the sugar beets production. Technological progress and the implementation of more specific software, allow an improvement in harvest times and a better working environment for the operator
Technology

Forestry winches: technical characteristics and applications

The winch is an absolutely indispensable piece of equipment for a business operating in the forestry sector, and is offered on the market by many manufacturers. The prices vary depending on the product characteristics, and are within the reach of both forestry companies and the agricultural farms that do sporadic forestry activities
Technology

High precision for the machine graders

The combination of laser with GPS has led to a significant qualitative leap in the work of the graders. The laser provides a perfect definition of the plane, while the precise geolocation ensured by the GPS (in RTK mode) means the path of the equipment is optimized, to minimize the volume of material moved and consequently also the working times and costs
Technology

Autonomous vehicles, the new frontier of mechanization

Tractors and self-propelled machinery driven by highly automated systems and robots used for different functions represent the new generation of agricultural machinery. The process of automating some functions has been underway for some time, but in recent years the development of electronic systems and artificial intelligence has made great progress and already enables the production and management of computerized means and robots for many different applications
Technology

Soil tillage: solutions and strategies for less impact

The article describes the results of a research centered on the environmental impact produced by soil tillage. With an articulated methodology, we can compare the impact caused by tillage carried out directly by the farmer and that produced by the work of a contractor
Technology

Smart seats, a support for machinery operators

From the archaic “U” springs to the most advanced automatic adjustment devices of the suspension, stiffness and dynamic response. This is the technological path of a component that has become increasingly important over time
Technology

Radiators, a multi-functional component

Radiators are needed not only to cool the engine but also to cool the oils and fluids for the lubrication of the engine, the main hydraulic system, the power steering, the gearbox, the turbo intercooler, the air conditioner, etc. On modern tractors, a massive “radiator package” is installed which must dispose of an important amount of heat
Technology

Green machinery components

As in the agricultural machinery sector, the components play a fundamental role also in gardening and garden care. In fact, many of the machinery’s technological innovations depend on the installation of components with innovative features. The industry offers a wide range of new-generation solutions ranging from mechanical components to hydraulic and motor components up to electronic ones
Technology

Grape harvesters: high technology for quality productions

The technical evolution helps to increase the harvesting efficiency of grape harvesters, both in terms of the gentle handling of grapes and of cleaning from foreign materials. The application of electronic systems allows qualitative and quantitative monitoring of production, while automatic guidance devices allow the machine to operate autonomously
Technology

The telehandler, top-level multi-functionality

Telehandlers are characterized by their great manoeuvrability in tight spaces, but above all for the extreme versatility they have gained over time. From the management of forage to that of wastewater and biomass, up to the most diverse operations of loading and unloading materials, telescopic handlers provide a precious support on the farm. Sophisticated technologies characterize the new models, which also feature systems to ensure cost-effectiveness in consumption and safety in operations
Technology

Mechanized systems for walnuts

Dried fruit consumption is booming in many countries. The growth in demand is an opportunity for farms that grow hazel, walnut and almond trees, only on the condition that specific technologies are available. Today, the agricultural machinery industry is able to offer effective solutions for different types of plants and different production requirements
Technology

Motor hoe, among past and present

This machine is extremely widespread, both at a professional and hobby level, to which, however, proper attention must be paid, above all from the safety point of view. Italian manufacturers, as market leaders, have given motor hoes an amazing versatility
Technology

Roto-balers, a refined technology

Roto-balers represent an advanced technology, characterized by great reliability, simplicity and manageability. This type of machine is versatile now more than ever, with a vast choice of models, suitable for all types of forage and for every farm size
Technology

Manure spreaders: management of the waste

To provide crops with the nutrients required and, at the same time, dispose of substances that would otherwise pollute, it is essential to correctly distribute the livestock waste in the field. The technological solutions offered by the industries are increasingly efficient and adapt to different business needs
Technology

Reducing emissions from diesel engines

The exhaust pollutant emissions from endothermic diesel engines have a high environmental impact, however, the modern anti-pollution systems can narrow reduce it by over 90%
Technology

Tyres 4.0: the Apps for their optimization

Innovative sensors, often integrated with Apps for control and optimization, allow the adjustment of the tyres pressure to the correct values for the best use in all conditions
Technology

Trench or silo bags: two silage options

The different silage solutions meet the different technical and economic requirements of the companies. A point to consider regarding the silage system concerns possible product losses, which are also linked to environmental sustainability
Technology

Mechanization of medicinal plants production

Compared to the most common crops, the production of medicinal plants is quite profitable. Nevertheless, specific mechanization is still very low, and the machinery used are often modified versions of machines designed for other functions
Technology

Mower conditioners, for a quality zootechnical nutrition

The use of machines that simultaneously carry out the cutting and processing of the forage reduces the drying time while keeping a high-quality level. There is a wide choice of options among the specific cutting and conditioning technologies provided by the manufacturing industries
Technology

Springs in agriculture: mechanical components and working parts

The springs are common application in the technic, and are used for very different purposes. In agricultural mechanics they play a fundamental role, also as working tools. In this case, the wear to which they are subjected can be minimized thanks to thanks to special treatments of the steel with which they are manufactured
Technology

Optimize the processing: mineral fertilizer spreaders

The variable-rate fertilizer spreader is usually characterized by the presence of different devices: independent dose adjustment for each delivery disk. The system, usually defined as EMC (Electronic Mass flow Control), is based on the continuous correction of the position of...
Technology

Special steels for the manufacturing of agricultural machinery

The performance characteristics of the agricultural equipment's metal parts are, sometimes, extremely different even, in some ways, conflicting with each other. The careful selection of special and high-strength steels allows to effectively reconcile the various needs
Technology

Semi-hayed forage wrappers

Compared to traditional haymaking, the wrapping of semi-wilted forage bales effectively creates mini-silos, with several advantages regarding the quantity and quality of the product. The wrapping machines on the market today offer various alternatives for carrying out this routine, including the simultaneous packing and wrapping, in many cases with a high degree of automation
Technology

Mechanizations final frontier: harvesting robotization

Harvesting of many fresh fruit and vegetables is still exclusively carried out by hand to better maintain its organoleptic characteristics and, above all, its storage life. Although somewhat a little slowly, robotics begins to offer interesting alternative solutions
Technology

Vertical shredder-mixer wagons

Precision feeding plays an increasingly important role in livestock farms, effectively supporting farmers for the distribution of optimal and constant rations over time, thanks to the quality and quantity monitoring of each food, and subsequently the mixing and distribution of the ration in the feed lane
Technology

The winerys energy needs: the use of pruning residues and the environmental sustainability

The management of the vine shoots can be done with two different methods to be assessed in relation to the environmental impact calculated with the life cycle analysis (Life Cycle Assessment). A research activity carried out at a social winery in the Oltrepò Pavese area, which works the grapes produced in an area of about 600 hectares, has allowed comparing the different methods and results
Technology

Precision farming machinery: the current scenario

Agricultural mechanics have always gone hand in hand with agronomic techniques, providing technological solutions to make work more efficient and the use of productive means more rational. A combination that has made it possible to meet the historical needs of an ever-changing agriculture that will continue to do so in future, consolidating development models able of rationalizing the use of natural resources through innovation and research
Technology

Parking jacks for agricultural equipment: the safety norms

This article describes the functional and structural characteristics of parking jacks for agricultural equipment and illustrates the static and dynamic test procedures to achieve the certification of compliance with safety and reliability requirements laid down by the relevant standard ISO 12140 "Agricultural machinery, agricultural trailers and trailed equipment, drawbar jacks
Technology

To drain, but also to irrigate, the gripper-ditchers

Ditch excavation machinery is normally used to improve drainage in soils subjected to water stagnation, but it is also useful for digging furrows to lay pipes for underground irrigation. The manufacturers have developed models and accessories able to satisfy all the needs
Technology

Olive harvesting, the role played by mechanization

The use of mechanical means is the evolution of a strategic way to decisive increase the productivity of the crop. There are now many cultivars adapted for the proper use of shakers which assure maximum yields
Technology

Innovation and sustainability in forest activities

The definition of the optimal mechanization level of the forestry site must take into account many parameters, including the environmental ones. National forestry businesses need machinery suitable for the terrain and for the extent of the area
Technology

The specialized tractors: a cutting-edge segment

The sector of tractors for specialized crops has always been "made in Italy". It is a segment that Italian manufacturers still lead, even if some foreign firms with technologically competitive products have come to the fore in the last few years. The particular uses for which these machines are intended impose different characteristics compared to traditional tractors in terms of design, of the engine aspects and of the driving position
Technology

Innovative technologies for lettuce cultivation

Whether in leafs or as a head of lettuce, in the open field or in protected scraps, lettuce production makes use of particularly advanced solutions, such as aeroponic cultivation and the application of artificial intelligence. In any case, with a high level of mechanization
Technology

Developments in mechanics for haymaking

The movement required for natural drying in the field represents a critical step for hay quality. Specialized companies are developing, also in the context of European research programs, systems aimed at optimizing operations, preserving the best properties of the zootechnical food
Technology

The many variants of the "utility" range

Most of the power band of the tractors known as "wildcard" or "utility", is around 75 kW. They are means designed to offer maximum operating versatility, and to be able to adapt to the most different working situations. These tractors offer a broad range of variability in terms of possible configurations, both for the driving position, as for the engines, the transmissions, and the hydraulic systems, as well as for the axles and the braking systems
Technology

Shredders and milling machines, technology for forests

Designed to carry out operations of arrangement and maintenance of the wooded areas, the shredders and milling machinery represent a particularly interesting segment in the field of agricultural mechanics. The difference between a forest shredder and a forest milling machinery is that, while the former is used for shredding trees, bushes, cutting waste and piles of branches, with the latter it is also possible deeply mill and crush roots and stumps

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